The task of the department is to use the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools of wheat for the improvement of stress adaptation and quality parameters. The success of gene transfer is monitored using molecular cytogenetic and molecular genetic methods.
Species belonging to the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools of hexaploid wheat represent a useful source of genes for plant breeding. One aspect of the department’s work involves pre-breeding activities: the development of functionally new introgressions that play an important role in improving the resistance of wheat to biotic and abiotic stress factors. Obtaining a better understanding of the genome structure of species belonging to the Hordeum, Secale, Aegilops and Thinopyrum genera used in crosses (primarily by means of molecular cytogenetic techniques: in situ hybridisation) and the precise mapping of phylogenetic relationships within the genera and with other genera all contribute to the targeted utilisation of agronomically useful genes. In addition to their direct use in breeding, the basic genetic materials acquired as a result of crossing are also suitable for investigations on the role of chromosome structure and specific chromosome regions in reproduction. In the framework of international cooperation the department is also responsible for separating the individual chromosomes of various Aegilops and Agropyron species by means of flow cytometry, followed by sequencing and the design of species-specific molecular markers.
Basic genetic materials are collected, preserved, maintained and characterised as part of the activities of the Martonvásár Cereal Gene Bank.
Experiments are performed under phytotronic, field and laboratory conditions.
The plant material required for experiments in the Department of Plant Genetic Resources are raised under phytotronic and field conditions. The results obtained with molecular cytogenetic methods are evaluated with the help of fluorescence microscopes.
Department of Plant Genetic Resources, Fanni Tóth
Use of high-resolution molecular cytogenetic techniques (fluorescence in situ hybridisation, FISH) in research on plant genetics (FISH performed on mitotic and meiotic chromosomes, 3D-FISH on cell nuclei).
Schneider A, Rakszegi M, Molnár-Láng M, Szakács É (2016) Production and cytomolecular identification of new wheat-perennial rye (Secale cereanum) disomic addition lines with yellow rust resistance (6R) and increased arabinoxylan and protein content (1R, 4R, 6R). Theor. Appl. Genet. 129:1045-1059. doi: 10.1007/s00122-016-2682-6
Molnár I, Šimková H, Leverington-Waite M, Goram R, Cseh A, Vrána J, Farkas A, Doležel J, Molnár-Láng M, Griffiths S (2013) Syntenic relationships between the U and M genomes of Aegilops, wheat and the model species Brachypodium and rice as revealed by COS markers. PLoS ONE 8:e70844. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070844
Linc G, Sepsi A, Molnár-Láng M (2012) A FISH karyotype to study chromosome polymorphisms for the Elytrigia elongata E genome. Cytogenet. Genome Res. 136:138-144. doi: 10.1159/000334835
Lukaszewski AJ, Kopecky D, Linc G (2012) Inversions of chromosome arms 4AL and 2BS in wheat invert the patterns of chiasma distribution. Chromosoma 121:201-208. doi:10.1007/s00412-011-0354-5
Molnár I, Kubaláková M, Šimková H, Cseh A, Molnár-Láng M, Doležel J (2011) Chromosome isolation by flow sorting in Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata. PLoS ONE 6:e27708. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027708
Molnár-Láng M, Cseh A, Szakács É, Molnár I (2010) Development of a wheat genotype combining the recessive crossability alleles kr1kr1kr2kr2 and the 1BL.1RS translocation, for the rapid enrichment of 1RS with new allelic variation. Theor. Appl. Genet. 120:1535-1545. doi:10.1007/S00122-010-1274-0.
Sepsi A, Molnár I, Szalay D, Molnár-Láng M (2008) Characterization of a leaf rust-resistant wheat-Thinopyrum ponticum partial amphiploid BE-1, using sequential multicolor GISH and FISH. Theor. Appl. Genet. 116:825-834. doi: 10.1007/s00122-008-0716-4
Szakács É, Molnár-Láng M (2007) Development and molecular cytogenetic identification of new winter wheat - winter barley (’Martonvásári 9 kr1’ - ’Igri’) disomic addition lines. Genome 50:43-50. doi: 10.1139/g06-134
Molnár-Láng M, Linc G, Logojan A, Sutka J (2000) Production and meiotic pairing behaviour of new hybrids of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) × winter barley (Hordeum vulgare). Genome 43:1045–1054. doi: 10.1139/g00-079
Linc G, Friebe BR, Kynast RG, Molnár-Láng M, Kőszegi B, Sutka J, Gill BS (1999) Molecular cytogenetic analysis of Aegilops cylindrica Host. Genome 42:497-503. doi: 10.1139/g98-151